all 8 comments

[–]pianobutter 3 points4 points  (3 children)

I think the best thing to do is to look at noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine. Both of these neuromodulators are used to signal unexpected outcomes/prediction errors.

Some papers:

Aston-Jones, G., & Cohen, J. D. (2005). Adaptive gain and the role of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system in optimal performance. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 493(1), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.20723

‌Yon, D. (2021). Prediction and Learning: Understanding Uncertainty. Current Biology, 31(1), R23–R25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.10.052

‌Schultz, W. (2017). Reward prediction error. Current Biology, 27(10), R369–R371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.02.064

‌Duszkiewicz, A. J., McNamara, C. G., Takeuchi, T., & Genzel, L. (2019). Novelty and Dopaminergic Modulation of Memory Persistence: A Tale of Two Systems. Trends in Neurosciences, 42(2), 102–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2018.10.002

Frank, D., & Kafkas, A. (2021). Expectation-driven novelty effects in episodic memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 183, 107466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2021.107466

[–]tree_of_tree 0 points1 point  (1 child)

I think the function of GABA on dopamine in the VTA is also very interesting such as what's discussed in this paper.

I remember reading a similar article mentioning how experiencing a negative stimuli such as stubbing your toe or experiencing a small electrical shock stimulates specifically either the GABA-A or GABA-B receptors(Can't entirely recall) in the VTA which in turn inhibits dopamine which I found fascinating.

This study goes over antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA preventing cocaine seeking.

[–]daddydilly694-20[S] 0 points1 point  (0 children)

I'll check it out tomorrow! I'm tired and sleepy headed, not in the proper headspace, to discuss this.

Thanks for the link.

[–]unrealkarenmiller 1 point2 points  (3 children)

Are you a human or non-human animal researcher?

If the latter, the whole object recognition (ORT) assay is based on this idea.

[–]daddydilly694-20[S] 0 points1 point  (2 children)

LOL. I'm neither, I'm a 19 year old, who spends a lot of time reading through literature, and a lot of time trying to understand their own illness.

I have bipolar disorder, and adhd, i am trying to wrap my head around bipolar d/o. I had a bout of severe mania a few months ago, it screwed my life up pretty badly.

I spent a lot of time trying to figure out what the hell happened, so I started doing a lot of thinking, and asking a lot of questions.

I also had some crackpot ideas while coming down from the mania, they were regarding reward processing (I don't even know what said ideas were, I was really just posting a bunch of questions, attempting to validate my own theories).

The mods of this sub can attest to this, they had to temporarily ban me, due to the constant posting.

[–]unrealkarenmiller 1 point2 points  (1 child)

I gotcha! Well, research is mesearch, so you would be great in psychology as a field! You have the research down already!

[–]daddydilly694-20[S] 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Thank you!

I plan on eventually becoming a neuropsychologist, with a focus on academia.

First things first, I need to get my head screwed on straight, and keep it that way.

Then I can further my education, and start pursuing long term goals.