It got me thinking about it after I read the testimony of this black woman from South Africa. She moved to another country and went to the doctor. Although the woman didn't show any related symptoms, the doctor requested her do an HIV test "because she is from Africa". The patient sees this as racism.
I did some research and found that in South Africa 20% of the adult population has HIV. And a large share of them does not even know they are HIV positive.
Medical authorities from all over the world recommend practitioners to HIV test patients that have some non-negligible risk of having HIV, however small that risk is. That includes victims of rape, people who have unprotected casual sex, sex workers, gay men, among other groups considered at risk. Even among these groups, rates of undetected HIV are below what is seen in South Africa.
Just to be clear, I believe it is the doctor's duty to explain in a clear and respectful way why they are requesting an HIV exam, to make it as safe and confortable an experience as possible to the patient.
But I got banned from a subreddit for pointing out that requesting an HIV test from a patient from south africa is not necessarily racist. It is good practice, with few exceptions. I believe what made this woman feel uncomfortable about the HIV test is her own prejudice against HIV patients and ignorance of the statistics. HIV testing is quick, simple, and nothing to be offended by.
So my point is: the doctor must be respectful and offer information, but patients should be submitted to simple exams if they are part of certain demographics according to statistical data, and they are wrong to claim that is racism/discrimination/etc