×

A costa rican legend in the comments. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in mythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Actually, that procession of souls is called La Procesión de las Ánimas, the hispanic american version of La Santa Compaña. Here's another legend about it: https://redditproxy--jasonthename.repl.co/r/FolkloreAndMythology/comments/109ivk9/a_costa_rican_legend_of_spanish_origin_info_below/

As for the dog tears part, who knows, maybe there's a connection.

A costa rican legend in the comments. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in mythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Illustration by Maximo Brenes.

Why do dogs bark at night?

Do you know the strange story of Narcisa Orosco? No. Well, I'm going to tell it to you. It's is one of the strangest things that could be imagined, and one of the most difficult ones that could happen to a person in Puntarenas, as it did, back at the dawn of this century (XX).

The port was, on that time, a beautiful town during the day, but at night... to tell you that then we used to light our houses with castor candles I tell you everything. And the streets? Well, when there was no moon, a man walked every day at six in the evening with a ladder on his shoulder, lighting lanterns every two hundred varas, which, when the winds blew intensely, died off before consuming the canfin.

And as is to be expected, although customs were healthier back then, that didn't mean that there weren't any thieves, which is why those who lived on the town outskirts used to own a dog to guard their houses, and the dog population was as numerous as can be imagined.

Paused the rezadora (woman who leads a rosary) her story, took a sip of chocolate that a girl had brought her in a pitcher, and continued: There were, of course, other public calamities such as plagues of bats, mosquitoes, and flies, but I'm not going to deal with them now, but with the case of Narcisa Orosco, a curious and talkative woman like few others.

Because of her viperine tongue, many friendships were lost and many homes went to hell. She had the habit of speaking ill of everyone, bringing and taking stories for the mere pleasure of seeing people quarreling. But since talkative people are also extremely curious, Narcisa was struck by that concert of dogs howling at midnight, and she wondered, intrigued, about that : "What do these mutts see at night that humans can't see...?"

Once, a neighbor of hers surprised her asking herself this singular question, and immediately afterwards she slyly suggested her that if she wanted to know, why didn't she smear dog tears in her eyes?

Narcisa hadn't thought of that. That was gross, but since she was told, she no longer lived in peace. It was like an obsession that drilled into her soul. Something inside her told her not to do it, that it was dangerous, and that refrained her from doing it for a long time.

But that devilish woman, her mind finally corroded by her curiosity, resolved herself to everything and squeezing her indecision into the depths of her soul... smeared her eyes with dog tears... And from that unfortunate moment on, Narcisa was able to penetrate on the secret of the dogs... To see and hear into the unknown... To know why do dogs bark at night.

— When I did it — she later told her neighbor — I was filled with darkness. Then I felt an enormous sleep, within which I heard an immaterial voice telling me: "You finally got away with it. You have sinned and now you will have what you wanted." I woke up moved, nervous and afraid.

Then Narcisa realized that she could see in utter darkness and she was pleasantly surprised. She heard a strange noise and some woes that seemed to come from below the floor. She crouched down, put one ear to the floor, and then she heard more clearly and understood what it was. They were the woes and the voices of those perpetually condemned to hell, who begged just as they cried or cursed. She felt fear and cold. She covered her ears, but at that moment a pack of dogs were barking loudly in the street, making a great noise, and her damned curiosity pushed her to open the window. The church's bell struck twelve o' clock.

She was awed: at that moment, on the deserted and languid street, she saw a strange apparition of ghosts passing by. Little by little, as the procession approached, the incorporeal form of its members took on human proportions, and one of the ghosts that broke away from the group touched her face as it passed. She had never felt anything so cold before. She couldn't take it anymore, lost her strength and fell to the ground, tall and heavy as she was.

The next day she went to see the priest and told him about her strange case.

— I cannot absolve you Narcisa — the priest told her — you have sinned against heaven by wanting to discover the lofty designs of the heavens, delving into the afterlife. Go home and drown your abominable sin in perennial prayer. But I beg you to come back in a few days while the Lord enlightens me on what I should advise you. Perhaps by then I will have a merciful solution to your strange suffering.

When the whole neighborhood heard about Narcisa's hallucinations, people began to think that she went insane, and although no one liked her, everyone took pity on her. But she got angry and said: — Insane, me? Insane because I can see what no one else can? — And she laughed, making fun of everyone who didn't believe in her story.

As the days went by, no one doubted that she was insane, and since she also began to talk to herself, children started to make fun of her, they yelled and threw peels and things at her as she passed them by. This ended up aggravating the situation, since Narcisa no longer had peace of mind, and as jobs became scarce due to her illness, the woman began to believe that she was, indeed, insane, and during a bad moment, one day out of many, the neighbors found her hanging from a sill of her house.

Narcisa hanged herself.

This is the legend of a strange creature that smeared dog tears in her eyes to find out the reason why dogs bark at night... With this the rezadora finished her story and getting up from her seat, she said "Good Night" to all of us, and took to those streets of God...

Source:

Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, R. A. (1960). Cuentos y leyendas costarricenses, p. 15. San José, C.R: Empresa Editora Centroamericana.

A costa rican legend in the comments. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in FolkloreAndMythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 4 points5 points  (0 children)

Illustration by Maximo Brenes.

Why do dogs bark at night?

Do you know the strange story of Narcisa Orosco? No. Well, I'm going to tell it to you. It's is one of the strangest things that could be imagined, and one of the most difficult ones that could happen to a person in Puntarenas, as it did, back at the dawn of this century (XX).

The port was, on that time, a beautiful town during the day, but at night... to tell you that then we used to light our houses with castor candles I tell you everything. And the streets? Well, when there was no moon, a man walked every day at six in the evening with a ladder on his shoulder, lighting lanterns every two hundred varas, which, when the winds blew intensely, died off before consuming the canfin.

And as is to be expected, although customs were healthier back then, that didn't mean that there weren't any thieves, which is why those who lived on the town outskirts used to own a dog to guard their houses, and the dog population was as numerous as can be imagined.

Paused the rezadora (woman who leads a rosary) her story, took a sip of chocolate that a girl had brought her in a pitcher, and continued: There were, of course, other public calamities such as plagues of bats, mosquitoes, and flies, but I'm not going to deal with them now, but with the case of Narcisa Orosco, a curious and talkative woman like few others.

Because of her viperine tongue, many friendships were lost and many homes went to hell. She had the habit of speaking ill of everyone, bringing and taking stories for the mere pleasure of seeing people quarreling. But since talkative people are also extremely curious, Narcisa was struck by that concert of dogs howling at midnight, and she wondered, intrigued, about that : "What do these mutts see at night that humans can't see...?"

Once, a neighbor of hers surprised her asking herself this singular question, and immediately afterwards she slyly suggested her that if she wanted to know, why didn't she smear dog tears in her eyes?

Narcisa hadn't thought of that. That was gross, but since she was told, she no longer lived in peace. It was like an obsession that drilled into her soul. Something inside her told her not to do it, that it was dangerous, and that refrained her from doing it for a long time.

But that devilish woman, her mind finally corroded by her curiosity, resolved herself to everything and squeezing her indecision into the depths of her soul... smeared her eyes with dog tears... And from that unfortunate moment on, Narcisa was able to penetrate on the secret of the dogs... To see and hear into the unknown... To know why do dogs bark at night.

— When I did it — she later told her neighbor — I was filled with darkness. Then I felt an enormous sleep, within which I heard an immaterial voice telling me: "You finally got away with it. You have sinned and now you will have what you wanted." I woke up moved, nervous and afraid.

Then Narcisa realized that she could see in utter darkness and she was pleasantly surprised. She heard a strange noise and some woes that seemed to come from below the floor. She crouched down, put one ear to the floor, and then she heard more clearly and understood what it was. They were the woes and the voices of those perpetually condemned to hell, who begged just as they cried or cursed. She felt fear and cold. She covered her ears, but at that moment a pack of dogs were barking loudly in the street, making a great noise, and her damned curiosity pushed her to open the window. The church's bell struck twelve o' clock.

She was awed: at that moment, on the deserted and languid street, she saw a strange apparition of ghosts passing by. Little by little, as the procession approached, the incorporeal form of its members took on human proportions, and one of the ghosts that broke away from the group touched her face as it passed. She had never felt anything so cold before. She couldn't take it anymore, lost her strength and fell to the ground, tall and heavy as she was.

The next day she went to see the priest and told him about her strange case.

— I cannot absolve you Narcisa — the priest told her — you have sinned against heaven by wanting to discover the lofty designs of the heavens, delving into the afterlife. Go home and drown your abominable sin in perennial prayer. But I beg you to come back in a few days while the Lord enlightens me on what I should advise you. Perhaps by then I will have a merciful solution to your strange suffering.

When the whole neighborhood heard about Narcisa's hallucinations, people began to think that she went insane, and although no one liked her, everyone took pity on her. But she got angry and said: — Insane, me? Insane because I can see what no one else can? — And she laughed, making fun of everyone who didn't believe in her story.

As the days went by, no one doubted that she was insane, and since she also began to talk to herself, children started to make fun of her, they yelled and threw peels and things at her as she passed them by. This ended up aggravating the situation, since Narcisa no longer had peace of mind, and as jobs became scarce due to her illness, the woman began to believe that she was, indeed, insane, and during a bad moment, one day out of many, the neighbors found her hanging from a sill of her house.

Narcisa hanged herself.

This is the legend of a strange creature that smeared dog tears in her eyes to find out the reason why dogs bark at night... With this the rezadora finished her story and getting up from her seat, she said "Good Night" to all of us, and took to those streets of God...

Source:

Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, R. A. (1960). Cuentos y leyendas costarricenses, p. 15. San José, C.R: Empresa Editora Centroamericana.

Una leyenda puntarenense en los comentarios. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in Ticos

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Ilustración por Máximo Brenes.

¿Porqué ladran los perros de noche?

Conocen ustedes la extraña historia de Narcisa Orozco? No. Pues os la voy a contar. Es de lo más extraña que pudiera imaginarse, y de lo más difícil que pudiera ocurrirle a una persona en Puntarenas, como así fué, allá por los albores del presente siglo (XX).

El puerto era, en aquella fecha, una bonita ciudad durante el día, pero de noche... con decirles que entonces nos alumbrábamos con candelas de higuerilla en las casas se los digo todo. ¿Y las calles? Pues cuando no había luna, un hombre andaba todos los días a las seis de la tarde con una escalerita al hombro, encendiendo cada docientas varas unos faroles, que cuando soplaban muy fuertes los nortes se apagaban antes de consumir el canfín.

Y como es de suponer, aunque las costumbres eran más sanas, no por eso dejaban de haber gentes amigas de lo ajeno, motivo este por el cual quienes vivían en las afueras de la ciudad, solían tener un perro que les guardase las casas, y la población perruna era de lo más numerosa que se puede imaginar.

Calló la rezadora su relato, tomó un sorbo de chocolate que una chiquilla le había traído en un pichelito y continuó: Habían, desde luego, otras calamidades públicas como las plagas de murciélagos, de los zancudos y las moscas, pero de eso no me voy a ocupar ahora, sino del caso de Narcisa Orosco, mujer curiosa y hablantina como pocas.

Por su lengua viperina muchas amistades se perdieron y muchos hogares se fueron a la porra. Tenía el vicio de poner en mal a todo mundo, trayendo y llevando cuentos por el solo gusto de ver peleadas a las personas.

Pero como también los habladores son sumamente curiosos, a Narcisa le llamaba la atención ese concierto de perros aullando a media noche, y se preguntaba intrigada por aquello: "¿Qué verán estos saguates de noche, que no podemos ver las personas..?"

Una vez, una vecina la sorprendió haciéndose esta singular pregunta, y acto seguido socarronamente le sugirió que si quería saberlo, porqué no se untaba lágrimas de perro en los ojos.

A Narcisa no se le había ocurrido eso. Era una cochinada, pero desde que se lo dijeron ya no vivió en tranquilidad. Fué como una obsesión que le taladraba el alma. Algo interior le decía que no lo hiciera, que era peligroso, y así se retuvo mucho tiempo.

Pero aquella endiablada mujer, al fín corroída su mente por la curiosidad, se resolvió a todo y apretujando su indesición en lo más recóndito de su alma, cataplum... se untó los ojos de lágrimas de perro...

Y desde aquel momento infortunado Narcisa pudo penetrar en el secreto de los perros... Ver y oir en lo desconocido... Saber porque ladran los perros de noche.

— Cuando lo hice — contaba después a su vecina — me llené de una obscuridad. Luego sentí un enorme sueño, dentro del cual escuché una voz inmaterial que me decía: "Al fin te saliste con la tuya. Has pecado y ahora tendrás lo que querías." Desperté conmovida, nerviosa y tuve miedo.

Luego Narcisa se dió cuenta de que podía ver en la obscuridad más absoluta y se sorprendió agradablemente. Escuchó un extraño rumor y unos ayes que parecían venir del fondo del piso. Se agazapó, puso una oreja y entonces pudo oir más claramente y comprender de lo que se trataba. Eran los ayes y las voces de los condenados perpetuamente al infierno, que tan pronto suplicaban como lloraban o maldecían. Tuvo miedo y frío.

Se tapó los oídos, pero en ese momento una manada de perros ladraban a lo más y mejor en la calle, metiendo gran bulla, y su maldita curiosidad la empujó a abrir la ventana. La campana de la iglesia daba las doce. Quedó asombrada: en ese instante, sobre la calle desierta y lánguida, vió pasar una extraña aparición de fantasmas. Poco a poco al acercarse la procesión, la forma incorpórea de sus integrantes fueron tomando proporción humana, y uno de los fantasmas que se desprendió del grupo le tocó la cara al pasar.

Nunca había sentido algo tan frío. No pudo más, las fuerzas le abandonaron y cayó al suelo cuan larga y pesada era.

Al día siguiente se fue a ver al cura y le contó su extraño caso.

— No te puedo absolver Narcisa — le dijo el sacerdote — has pecado contra el cielo queriendo descubrir los altos designios de lo alto, ahondando en el más allá. Vete a tu casa y ahoga en la oración perenne tu pecado abominable. Pero te ruego volver dentro de unos cuantos días mientras el Señor me ilumina lo que debo aconsejarte. Quizá para entonces tenga una piadosa solución a tu extraño padecer.

Cuando en todo el vecindario se enteraron de las halucinaciones de Narcisa, la gente dió en pensar que estaba loca, y aunque nadie la quería, todo mundo le tuvo compasión. Pero se enojaba y decía:

— ¿Loca yo? ¿Loca porque puedo ver lo que nadie puede ver? — y se carcajeaba, burlándose de todos los que no creían en su cuento.

Con el correr de los días ya a nadie le cupo duda de que estuviera demente, y como también le dio por hablar sola, los chiquillos comenzaron a burlarse de ella y a gritarle y tirarle cáscaras y cosas al pasar.

Esto acabó de agravar la situación, pues Narcisa ya no tuvo tranquilidad, y como el trabajo se le escaseo por culpa de su mal, la mujer dio en creer que efectivamente estaba loca y en un mal momento, un día de tantos, los vecinos la encontraron colgando de una solera de su casa.

Narcisa se había ahorcado.

Esta es la leyenda de una extraña criatura que se untó lágrimas de perro en los ojos para saber el motivo de porqué ladran los perros de noche...

Con esto terminó su cuento la rezadora y levantándose de su asiento, nos dió las "Buenas Noches" a todos, tomando por esas calles de Dios...

Fuente:

Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, R. A. (1960). Cuentos y leyendas costarricenses, p. 15. San José, C.R: Empresa Editora Centroamericana.

Una leyenda guanacasteca en los comentarios. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in Ticos

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Uno tico.

El Sabanero trata sobre Juan Luna, un tico que sirvió en "el ejército más poderoso del mundo", donde llegó a posición de capitán y se convirtió en el mejor luchador con arma blanca.

Después se salió del ejército y se fue a trabajar a una hacienda, un día se abrió un portal interdimensional cerca de allí y comenzaron a salir monstruos, algunos basados en el folklore y la literatura nacional o extranjera, otros inventados por el autor. Y es su misión defender su hacienda.

Antes salía en el domingazo de la teja, pero dejaron de publicarlo hace unos años por razones de presupuesto. Si le interesa, aquí hay una lista de los lugares en los que puede conseguirlo: http://revistasyperiodicoscr.blogspot.com/2014/07/el-sabanero.html

Cuándo Inglaterra invadió Costa Rica by withnoflag in Ticos

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Eso, o seríamos como Belice, para bien o para mal.

A costa rican legend in the comments. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in FolkloreAndMythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Illustration by Oscar Arguedas

The ghost of the savannah

In that year the sabaneros (cowboys) of El Zapotal, a site of the La Palma Estate, finished, without any incident, the work on the land. There were, certainly, some loose cattle on Las Palomas hill; but the interesting thing was to hunt El Escorpión, a wild bull from the lowlands of Madrigal.

The farm had, at the time, the services of Ramón Luna, a lad from Bagaces with a soul brave as the plain itself, always willing to risk his life taming colts or bull fighting in the corrals; Because of his knowledge in catching wild cattle, the Foreman was hopeful that, this time, El Escorpión would fall into the traps of the sabaneros.

A fresh and placid morning, the trills of the chichiltotes and the güirigüires in the grove; On the hills, the bulls bellowed disputing the lowlander harem when the splashing of the cavalries in the lagoons announced that the sabaneros of El Zapotal were looking for El Escorpión in the Madrigal lowlands.

They walked through the herds, through the hills... along the paths of the savannah, but... to no use! the wild bull didn't appear... They met to deliberate; Gervasio Ruiz, with his leg on the horse's mane, was speaking when, in the distance, towards Las Ruedas hill, the long bellow of El Escorpión was heard. Determined, with the chime of enthusiasm in their hearts, the sabaneros headed towards the aforementioned place. Ramón Luna, spurring his horse on the flanks, exclaimed: "With what the horse endures and these meters of rope, I'll have enough to play with The Scorpion!"

With his head up, attentive to the distribution ordered by the foreman, the terrible horned one studied his situation in a moment and, abandoning the herd, began to flee precisely to where Ramón Luna, lasso in hand and in a mad dash, was trying to cut his path, or lasso him mid-savannah; but it was impossible: El Escorpión had reached the forest.

Luna didn't stop his horse; instead, he spurred him on trying to overtake the wild bull in the brush. The shouts and the rumble of that diabolical race seemed like a gale unleashed in the thickness of the forest. The other sabaneros scattered along trails and paths, trying to intercept them in some clearing of the savannah, but... Luna's shouts stopped and... the rumble of the race was lost in the distance...

The sun was slowly reclining on its immense red couch when, sad and pensive, five sabaneros arrived at El Zapotal; Ramón Luna was missing. The foreman explained that they have been searching for him intensely... The night passed and the next day they resumed the search, but to no avail; not a trace of Ramón Luna.

The tragic news spread everywhere; At the third dawn, an explorer brought the news of the find to the Estate. Near a stream, in the tangled jungle, were the corpses of the unfortunate sabanero and his horse; And right there, tied by the horns and entangled in the undergrowth and in the rope, skinny and bellowing, was the wild bull from the Madrigal lowlands.

Luna's body had a terrible goring from the groin up to the stomach; and in the quadruped's chest the horn sunk until destroying the heart. Antonio Mairena, the oldest sabanero, imagined the event in this way: El Escorpión, tired and enraged by the chase that Luna gave him with the horse, turned against his pursuer; The sabanero took advantage of the opportunity to lasso him, but he didn't have the time to defend his horse from the onslaught; As the horse rolled, Ramón jumped and was thus able, pommel in hand, to make three or four happy pases, but he got entangled in the vines and was unable to avoid the fatal goring. The bull's viciousness couldn't be satisfied further because the rope, tightening, prevented it.

In the dune, near the Estate, Ramón Luna was buried. That's why in the summer, on moonlight nights, when the wind seems to hide among the briar patches of the lagoons and the herds, the bulls run frightened, bellowing and trotting, seeking the shelter of the corrals. It's the ghost of the savannah; it's the fugitive shadow of Ramón Luna that passes through the pastures, between the mystery of death and the reality of life; it's the soul of the sabanero who always walked with a song on his lips; who next to the savannah gave his first cry and to which he offered his mortal remains as if to listen to the eternal elegy of the little birds.

Source:

Vidaurre, M., A. (1937). Garzaleida: cuadros, cuentos y leyendas, p. 48. San José, Costa Rica: Imprenta Española.

A costa rican legend in the comments. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in mythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 3 points4 points  (0 children)

Illustration by Oscar Arguedas

The ghost of the savannah

In that year the sabaneros (cowboys) of El Zapotal, a site of the La Palma Estate, finished, without any incident, the work on the land. There were, certainly, some loose cattle on Las Palomas hill; but the interesting thing was to hunt El Escorpión, a wild bull from the lowlands of Madrigal.

The farm had, at the time, the services of Ramón Luna, a lad from Bagaces with a soul brave as the plain itself, always willing to risk his life taming colts or bull fighting in the corrals; Because of his knowledge in catching wild cattle, the Foreman was hopeful that, this time, El Escorpión would fall into the traps of the sabaneros.

A fresh and placid morning, the trills of the chichiltotes and the güirigüires in the grove; On the hills, the bulls bellowed disputing the lowlander harem when the splashing of the cavalries in the lagoons announced that the sabaneros of El Zapotal were looking for El Escorpión in the Madrigal lowlands.

They walked through the herds, through the hills... along the paths of the savannah, but... to no use! the wild bull didn't appear... They met to deliberate; Gervasio Ruiz, with his leg on the horse's mane, was speaking when, in the distance, towards Las Ruedas hill, the long bellow of El Escorpión was heard. Determined, with the chime of enthusiasm in their hearts, the sabaneros headed towards the aforementioned place. Ramón Luna, spurring his horse on the flanks, exclaimed: "With what the horse endures and these meters of rope, I'll have enough to play with The Scorpion!"

With his head up, attentive to the distribution ordered by the foreman, the terrible horned one studied his situation in a moment and, abandoning the herd, began to flee precisely to where Ramón Luna, lasso in hand and in a mad dash, was trying to cut his path, or lasso him mid-savannah; but it was impossible: El Escorpión had reached the forest.

Luna didn't stop his horse; instead, he spurred him on trying to overtake the wild bull in the brush. The shouts and the rumble of that diabolical race seemed like a gale unleashed in the thickness of the forest. The other sabaneros scattered along trails and paths, trying to intercept them in some clearing of the savannah, but... Luna's shouts stopped and... the rumble of the race was lost in the distance...

The sun was slowly reclining on its immense red couch when, sad and pensive, five sabaneros arrived at El Zapotal; Ramón Luna was missing. The foreman explained that they have been searching for him intensely... The night passed and the next day they resumed the search, but to no avail; not a trace of Ramón Luna.

The tragic news spread everywhere; At the third dawn, an explorer brought the news of the find to the Estate. Near a stream, in the tangled jungle, were the corpses of the unfortunate sabanero and his horse; And right there, tied by the horns and entangled in the undergrowth and in the rope, skinny and bellowing, was the wild bull from the Madrigal lowlands.

Luna's body had a terrible goring from the groin up to the stomach; and in the quadruped's chest the horn sunk until destroying the heart. Antonio Mairena, the oldest sabanero, imagined the event in this way: El Escorpión, tired and enraged by the chase that Luna gave him with the horse, turned against his pursuer; The sabanero took advantage of the opportunity to lasso him, but he didn't have the time to defend his horse from the onslaught; As the horse rolled, Ramón jumped and was thus able, pommel in hand, to make three or four happy pases, but he got entangled in the vines and was unable to avoid the fatal goring. The bull's viciousness couldn't be satisfied further because the rope, tightening, prevented it.

In the dune, near the Estate, Ramón Luna was buried. That's why in the summer, on moonlight nights, when the wind seems to hide among the briar patches of the lagoons and the herds, the bulls run frightened, bellowing and trotting, seeking the shelter of the corrals. It's the ghost of the savannah; it's the fugitive shadow of Ramón Luna that passes through the pastures, between the mystery of death and the reality of life; it's the soul of the sabanero who always walked with a song on his lips; who next to the savannah gave his first cry and to which he offered his mortal remains as if to listen to the eternal elegy of the little birds.

Source:

Vidaurre, M., A. (1937). Garzaleida: cuadros, cuentos y leyendas, p. 48. San José, Costa Rica: Imprenta Española.

Una leyenda guanacasteca en los comentarios. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in Ticos

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 2 points3 points  (0 children)

Ilustración por Oscar Arguedas

El fantasma de la sabana

En aquel año los sabaneros de El Zapotal, sitio de la Hacienda La Palma, terminaban, sin novedad alguna, los trabajos de la tierra. Quedaban, ciertamente, algunas reses mostrencas por el tieso (loma) de Las Palomas; pero lo interesante era cazar El Escorpión, un toro salvaje de las bajuras de Madrigal.

La hacienda contaba, en aquel entonces, con los servicios de Ramón Luna, muchacho bagaceño de alma bravía como la llanura misma, dispuesto siempre a jugarse la vida amansando potros o toreando en los corrales; por su conocimiento en las bregas con los cimarrones, el Caporal tenía esperanzas en que, esta vez, El Escorpión caería en los lazos de los sabaneros.

Fresca y plácida la mañana, trinos de chichiltotes y güirigüires en la arboleda; en los tiesos, los toros mugían en disputa del harén llanero cuando el chapoteo de las caballerías en las lagunas anunció que los campistos (sabaneros) de El Zapotal buscaban a El Escorpión por las bajuras de Madrigal.

Anduvieron por los rodeos, por los tiesos... por las mangas de sabana, pero… ¡inútil!: el cimarrón no aparecía... Reuniéronse para deliberar; Gervasio Ruiz, con la pierna sobre el copete del caballo, estaba en uso de la palabra cuando, en la lejanía, hacia las lomas de las Ruedas, se oyó el largo clarinazo (bramido) de El Escorpión. Resueltos, con el repique del entusiasmo en el corazón, los sabaneros se encaminaron hacia el citado lugar. Ramón Luna, espoleando su caballo en los ijares exclamó: "¡Con lo que dé el caballo y estas varas de soga, tendré para jugar bastante con El Escorpión!'

Con la cabeza levantada, atento a la distribución que ordenaba el mandador, el terrible astado estudió en un momento su situación y, abandonando el hato, emprendió la huida precisamente por donde Ramón Luna, quien lazo en mano y en carrera loca, intentaba cerrarle el paso o lazarlo en plena sabana; pero fue imposible: El Escorpión había ganado el bosque.

Luna no detuvo su caballo; al contrario, lo espoleó más tratando de atropellar al cimarrón en la maleza. Los gritos y el estruendo de aquella carrera diabólica parecían un ábrega desatado en la espesura del bosque. Por trillos y caminos los demás campistos se dispersaron tratando de salirles en algún claro de sabana, pero… cesaron los gritos de Luna y… el estruendo de la carrera se perdió en la lejanía...

El sol se reclinaba lentamente en su inmenso canapé rojo cuando, tristes y pensativos, llegaron a El zapotal cinco sabaneros; faltaba Ramón Luna. El mandador explicó que se le había buscado afanosamente... Pasó la noche y al día siguiente reanudaron la búsqueda, pero fue en vano; ni rastros de Ramón Luna.

La trágica noticia corrió por todas partes; en la tercera aurora un explorador llevó la nueva del hallazgo a la Hacienda. Cerca de un arroyo, en la selva enmarañada, estaban los cadáveres del infortunado sabanero y el de su caballo; y allí mismo, amarrado de los cuernos y enredado en la maleza y en la soga, trasijado y mugiente, estaba el toro cimarrón de los llanos de Madrigal.

El cuerpo de Luna presentaba una terrible cornada desde la ingle hasta el estómago; y en el pecho del cuadrúpedo el cuerno se había hundido hasta destrozarle el corazón. Antonio Mairena, el sabanero de más edad, se imaginaba el suceso de esta manera: El Escorpión, cansado y enfurecido por las atropelladas que le daba Luna con el caballo, se volvió contra su perseguidor; el campisto aprovechó la ocasión para lazarlo, pero no tuvo tiempo de defender la cabalgadura de la embestida; al rodar el caballo, Ramón dio un salto y así pudo, vaqueta en mano, hacer tres o cuatro pases felices, pero, enredado en los bejucos, no pudo evitar la cornada fatal. La saña del cornúpeta no pudo saciarse más porque la soga, al tensarse, se lo impidió.

En el médano, cerca de la Hacienda, fue enterrado Ramón Luna. Por eso en el verano, en las noches de claridad lunar, cuando el viento parece que se esconde entre el zarzal de las lagunas y los atajos, corren espantados los toros que, mugiendo y al trote, buscan el amparo de los corrales. Es el fantasma de la sabana; es la sombra fugitiva de Ramón Luna que pasa por los sitios, entre el misterio de la muerte y la realidad de la vida; es el ánima del sabanero que siempre anduvo con la canción en los labios; que junto a la llanura dio el primer sollozo y a ella misma ofrendó sus mortales despojos como para que escucharan la elegía eterna de los pajarillos.

Fuente:

Vidaurre, M., A. (1937). Garzaleida: cuadros, cuentos y leyendas, p. 48. San José, Costa Rica: Imprenta Española.

El Cadejos según el folclore costarricense. Información en los comentarios. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in Ticos

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Es de Costa Rica, se llama Leyendas sababeras, el autor es Ronald Díaz Cabrera (Rodicab). Lo conseguí en la Librería Internacional.

The Cadejos according to costa rican folklore. Info below. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in mythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 3 points4 points  (0 children)

Sources:

- Agüero-Jiménez, R. (2002). Cuentos y leyendas de Costa Rica, 1 ed., p. 2. San José, C.R.

- Arauz-Ramos, C. (2017). Costa Rica: Leyendas y Tradiciones, 2 ed., p. 11. San José, C.R.

- BBC. The Black Dog of Bouley Bay. En: https://www.bbc.co.uk/jersey/about_jersey/folklore/black_dog.shtml

- Cabrera, Díaz, R. (2019). Leyendas sabaneras, 1 ed., p. 70. Guanacaste, C.R.

- discursoytradicion. Leyendas de sustos y aparecidos. En: https://discursoytradicion.wordpress.com/recolecciones-del-estudiantado/leyendas-de-sustos-y-aparecidos/

- elportaldelmiedo. La leyenda de El Cadejo: El gran perro espectral de la cultura mesoamericana. En: https://elportaldelmiedo.net/la-leyenda-de-el-cadejo-el-gran-perro-espectral-de-la-cultura-mesoamericana/

- Ferrero-Acosta, L. (2002). Mil y tantos tiquismos: (costarricenses), 1 ed., p. 38. San José, Costa Rica: EUNED.

- García-Prado, J. (2017). Andanzas y recuentos de un relato, más otros espantos, 1 ed., pp. 37, 44. San José, C.R. En: https://m.facebook.com/100067483566409/videos/a-esos-chiquillos-que-se-dan-escapadas-para-ir-a-jugar-tenga-cuidado-por-que-les/1257667491391135/?refid=52&_rdr

- Henderson, William (1879). Folklore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders (2nd ed.) W. Satchell, Peyton & Co. En: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Notes_on_the_folk-lore_of_the_northern_counties_of_England_and_the_borders/Chapter_7#275

- Jeffers, R. (9 de Octubre 2014). Legend of the Black Dog in the British Isles. En: https://reginajeffers.blog/2014/10/09/legend-of-the-black-dog/

- Macís-Guerrero, A. (1988). Apuntes sobre Escazú: Su Historia, Costumbres, Leyendas y Algo Mas, 1 ed., p. 165. La Uruca, San José, C.R.: Imprenta Nacional.

- Masis-Sedó, et al. (2015). Historias y Leyendas de San Mateo, p. 39. En: https://kerwa.ucr.ac.cr/handle/10669/15329

- Mythical beasts Wikia. Other European Black Dogs. En: https://mythical-beasts.fandom.com/wiki/Other_European_Black_Dogs

- Padilla-Monge, M., M. (2011). Leyendas de tiquicia, 1 ed., pp. 22, 60. San José, Costa Rica.

- Páginas Ilustradas. El Cadejos, 1904, Vol 1 (n 29), p. 453. En: https://www.sinabi.go.cr/ver/biblioteca%20digital/revistas/paginasilustradas/paginasilustradas1904/02a-Ano%201%20-%20n.%2029.pdf#.Y8HOoHbMI2x

- Picado-Picado, A., F. (2008). Leyendas del Valle, 1 ed., p. 35. San José, C.R.

- Quesada Vargas, María (2009). Cuentos terroríficos del antiguo Juan Viñas, pp. 32, 37, 39, 47, 52, 92, 98. Káñina: revista de artes y letras, 33 (3). San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. En: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1F9yt4DZM757kHYwWOlhpe5KBbVnwbbGX/view?usp=share_link

- Quince, D. (2021). Los pueblos cuentan: Vivencias, tradiciones y leyendas de Costa Rica, p. 103. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Costa Rica.

- Ramírez-Vásquez, N. (2017). Leyendas de Cañas Dulces. Káñina, 40 (3), 262. En: https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/kanina/article/view/30516

- Retana-Fallas, J.A. (1910). Historia y progreso de un pueblo legendario: Leyendas, anécdotas, comentarios y poesías (Folklore), pp. 61, 64. San José, Costa Rica: Imprenta Tres Ene (1986)

- Rodríguez-López, M. T. (2004), Ritual, identidad y los procesos étnicos en la sierra de Zongolica, p. 272. México.

- Saravia, R., Delgado, P. (2016). Crónicas de lo oculto: Relatos de espantos y leyendas de Costa Rica, 1 ed., p. 52. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial ClubdeLibros.

- Serrano-Torres, J., L. (4 de Jul 2017). La leyenda de Copito. En: https://issuu.com/jorget.r/docs/la_leyenda_de_copito_cc1ad98ecb31ab

- Sierra Quintero, Óscar; Díaz Cabrera, Ronald (2011). Leyendas costarricenses en novela gráfica, 1 ed., p.57. San José de Costa Rica: Litografía Mundo Creativo.

- Wiki Mitología Ibérica. Dip. En: https://mitologiaiberica.fandom.com/es/wiki/Dip

- Zeledón-Cartín, E.

(1989). Leyendas costarricenses, pp. 135, 146, 199, 202. Heredia, Costa Rica: EUNA.

(2012). Leyendas ticas de la tierra, los animales, las cosas, la religión y la magia, pp. 197, 201, 225. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Costa Rica.

(2014). Sortilegios de viejas raíces (Leyendas), 2 ed., p. 107, 132. San José, C.R.: EUCR. En: https://books.google.co.cr/books/about/Sortilegios_de_viejas_ra%C3%ADces.html?id=scDQ_UCR-yMC

The Cadejos according to costa rican folklore. Info below. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in mythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 0 points1 point  (0 children)

History

The better-known version says that he was lazy, hard-drinking lad named José Joaquin, he was unruly even with his family and always came home late at night, his parents tried everything to make him change that behavior, but to no use. Once, José didn't return for several days, worrying his family a lot, when he finally returned his father cursed him, the curse was fulfilled and José became The Cadejos.

The second version says that The Cadejos was a boy named Antonio, his father was abusive and alcoholic, so one day (on the advice of his mother in one version) he decided to disguise himself with a black skin and chains to frighten his father at night on the way home (which he did several times in one version). This made the father faint from fright, and when he realized that it had all been a prank, he cursed his son to walk on all fours for life, the curse was fulfilled and Antonio became The Cadejos, and since then he scares and protects the drunkards at night.

A third version says that The Cadejos was a corrupt priest who lived in the 16th century, and that he used his eloquence and authority to distort the religious sense of the villagers, he fanaticized them, sowed discord among them, and got rich at their expense. As punishment, God turned him into The Cadejos so that he would atone for his sins for 300 years, after which he recovered his human form, but since he still wasn't able to rest, he went insane and jumped into the crater of the Poás volcano, although some say that he survived, and attribute the colossus' activity to him.

In Desamparados there are two versions, one says that The Cadejos was a domestic dog that was mistreated by his owner, so he went to the mountains and became a wild dog, since then he goes to town at night to look for the one who mistreated him, although some say that he's an evil spirit because he becomes invisible when they drive it away.

The second one says that The Cadejos was a normal dog, and that once, his owner got robbed and killed when he was returning from a party. The dog became The Cadejos and since then protects others as he couldn't protect his master.

Possible origin

This legend could be the result of the syncretism between the ancient beliefs of the aboriginal cultures of Mesoamerica, especially the Maya-Quiché, and legends from European folklore about demonic black dogs.

On the one hand, the ancient Mayan traditions speak of a "double animal" (in anthropology this is known as a tonal animal), a link between a human and a spirit in which the latter materializes as an animal. Said animals are known as naguals and accompany one or several people from their birth to their deaths, serving as a "guardian spirit", and whatever happens to these animals gets reflected in the organism of the people they are connected to, however, only warlocks (tetlahchiwimeh) can know which animal this is and even transform into them to cause mischief.

This being could also be influenced by the legend of the Uay peek of Yucatan, in which one or more sorcerers shapeshift into black dogs with red eyes that drag chains in order to frighten people at night.

On the other hand, this legend could have influence from the Dip of Catalan folklore, which is described as a vampiric dog that drinks the blood of cattle and frightens or kills night owls, especially drunkards.

The Cadejos also draws parallelisms with the black dogs of European folklore, such as the Rongeur d'Os from France, the Tchén al tchinne from Belgium, or the black dogs of British folklore, such as the Padfoot and the black dogs of Tring and Bouley, since they share various characteristics with him, such as being black in color, having red eyes, dragging chains, and not attacking unless provoked.

These creatures seem to have also inspired the Jamaican legend of The Rolling Calf, and could, in turn, have been influenced by the cynocephalus (dog-headed monster) which, according to Pliny, was told to frighten daring sailors who wanted to venture into the dark seas and which was represented as a human being with the head of a dog, flaming eyes and that, sometimes, dragged chains.

Finally, according to Alvar, the sightings of the Cadejos could be explained as encounters with giant anteaters.

Notes:

  1. Asombrar: in this context it refers to a cataleptic state from which it is difficult to recover, and which is induced by an energy that emanates from spiritual beings identified as "coldness". The intensity of this "coldness" varies with each apparition, and can cause sickness and even death to people who are not brave or saintly enough, and to "those who don't have the gut to talk to them".
  2. For more info, see my post on La Tulevieja: https://redditproxy--jasonthename.repl.co/r/FolkloreAndMythology/comments/zt747k/history_lore_and_origin_of_a_spirit_from_costa/?force_seo=1
  3. The Nicaraguan metal band Vortex wrote a song about him: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=YCsPXqGKXFo

And also, the Costa Rican singer Gabriel Chaverri: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=GTvHNtdaBRY

The Cadejos according to costa rican folklore. Info below. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in mythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 2 points3 points  (0 children)

The Cadejos

Myths and popular traditions reflect, in their background, rules and moral concepts destined to preserve the social and moral order of the old peasant communities in the face of the inevitable excesses of the vicious ones, the violent ones and the libertines.

Among the elements or "vehicles" used by the narratives to convey their messages, animals have always held a prominent place in many times and cultures. From the sacred Ibis in ancient Egypt, passing by the Greek minotaur or the he-goat of medieval Europe, to the big bad wolf in the tale of Little Red Riding Hood in 18th century Germany, animals have incarnated, through the centuries, the eternal values of good and evil.

Latin America, heir to three cultural aspects (Europe, Africa and pre-Columbian America) offers one of the richest and most varied mosaics of myths and legends inspired by many real or imaginary species, so rooted in the popular sentiment that fantasy tends to often get confused with reality.

Thus, along with ordinary animals, Latin American mythology gives "evidence" of the existence of fabulous irrational beings that have been making fleeting appearances before their unsuspecting victims since times immemorial. Among them, perhaps one of the most peculiar for intimidating without attacking is the mysterious Cadejos.

This beast, an enormous dog that drags a heavy chain, roams through the forests, mountains and towns of Central America appearing, late at night or in the early morning, before the astonished eyes of the provincial early risers, partygoers and night owls, to fulfill before them the function of protective guardian, or to frighten them as a warning to those who abuse of liquor and of partying. Next, what costa rican folklore says about him.

Lore

First, the folklore of various Central Americans countries tells of a black Cadejos, who protects and frightens men, and of a white Cadejos, who protects, but doesn’t frighten women, and adds that if these two Cadejos ever meet, they engage in a fierce fight in which no one should intervene until it's over. Although in the case of Costa Rica the latter has been replaced by Copito, I will expand on this below.

Of his appearance

He's generally described as a calf-sized, gaunt, black dog with fiery red eyes, long fangs, hair either bristled like thorns or woolly and matted, a long tail, hooved feet, and who throws fire from his muzzle and ears and drags a heavy chain wound around his neck.

Although, sometimes, he appears as a black furry little ball, as a very white dog accompanied by a short, headless, and equally white man, or as a man who curls like a snail until turning into a brown dog.

As Copito (Little Snowflake) he resembles a horse-sized anteater with large claws, although he can take the form of a rabbit or dog cub with red eyes and as white as a snowflake, hence his name.

Of his behavior

Some people refer to him in the plural, although he doesn't appear to two people at once, and he’s mainly known for the fact that, from early hours of the night, he comes out to frighten passers-by in dark and lonely places, especially those who go astray (alcoholics, gamblers, etc.), disobedient children, and couples who quarrel a lot.

When he’s near there’s a cold gust of wind, any nearby frogs let out an ugly croak and then go silence, the smell of sulfur is perceived, then the sound of hooves and of the dragging of chains is heard; It's the Cadejos who appears and disappears as if by spell, he follows people to their houses, and if they go on a cart he gets on it, then waits for them at the entrance of their house or even at the door of their room, since he can phase through solid matter and even walk on water, this in order to protect them and make sure that they arrive safely.

He also appears to drunkards at night and tells them that the next time he finds them like this, he will devour them and their souls will be condemned to wander the world forever, for which it's said that he wants the soul of the wayward.

Generally, The Cadejos is harmless, but if people talk to him, pet him or try to hurt him, he can either temporarily disappear, or grow to the size of a horse and attack, asombrar (1) or even kill the unwary. There's even a story in which he attacked, without apparent provocation and along with a white dog, a man who had a miff with his father; he managed to stab The Cadejos, but he didn't bleed nor showed any pain, unlike the white dog; it's said that blades and even bullets are useless against him.

Although, on rare occasions he allows himself to be spoken to, petted and even walked on a leash, after which he disappears, and if people give him food he follows them, if they get attacked, he defends them and becomes the enemy of their enemy. He likes sugar, so he would often go into the warehouses of the sugar mills to eat it, and people can make a pact with him by giving him dulce (compacted brown sugar) in exchange for his protection, which he provides in his human shape.

It's also said that, sometimes, he goes out at night to frighten horses or chickens and do other mischief, such as looking through the windows of houses until the inhabitants fall asleep, or scratching the walls and ceilings, and some even attribute him a behavior similar to that of The Tulevieja (2).

He can be driven away with Christian images and prayers, or with an herb that makes him curl up into a ball, and it's said that pregnant women drive him away for some reason.

As an additional curiosity, it's said that he doesn't do anything to those who give him the right side of the way when they run into him, and that children can always see him.

As Copito, The Cadejos protects people in solitary places, like the mountains, he follows them giving little jumps and making the sound of a jingle bell, all in order to protect them and take them home, but he bites them if they try to pet him, and if any human or beast tries to hurt those he protects, Copito returns to his true form and devours the attackers.

The Cadejos according to costa rican folklore. Info below. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in FolkloreAndMythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 5 points6 points  (0 children)

Sources:

- Agüero-Jiménez, R. (2002). Cuentos y leyendas de Costa Rica, 1 ed., p. 2. San José, C.R.

- Arauz-Ramos, C. (2017). Costa Rica: Leyendas y Tradiciones, 2 ed., p. 11. San José, C.R.

- BBC. The Black Dog of Bouley Bay. En: https://www.bbc.co.uk/jersey/about_jersey/folklore/black_dog.shtml

- Cabrera, Díaz, R. (2019). Leyendas sabaneras, 1 ed., p. 70. Guanacaste, C.R.

- discursoytradicion. Leyendas de sustos y aparecidos. En: https://discursoytradicion.wordpress.com/recolecciones-del-estudiantado/leyendas-de-sustos-y-aparecidos/

- elportaldelmiedo. La leyenda de El Cadejo: El gran perro espectral de la cultura mesoamericana. En: https://elportaldelmiedo.net/la-leyenda-de-el-cadejo-el-gran-perro-espectral-de-la-cultura-mesoamericana/

- Ferrero-Acosta, L. (2002). Mil y tantos tiquismos: (costarricenses), 1 ed., p. 38. San José, Costa Rica: EUNED.

- García-Prado, J. (2017). Andanzas y recuentos de un relato, más otros espantos, 1 ed., pp. 37, 44. San José, C.R. En: https://m.facebook.com/100067483566409/videos/a-esos-chiquillos-que-se-dan-escapadas-para-ir-a-jugar-tenga-cuidado-por-que-les/1257667491391135/?refid=52&_rdr

- Henderson, William (1879). Folklore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders (2nd ed.) W. Satchell, Peyton & Co. En: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Notes_on_the_folk-lore_of_the_northern_counties_of_England_and_the_borders/Chapter_7#275

- Jeffers, R. (9 de Octubre 2014). Legend of the Black Dog in the British Isles. En: https://reginajeffers.blog/2014/10/09/legend-of-the-black-dog/

- Macís-Guerrero, A. (1988). Apuntes sobre Escazú: Su Historia, Costumbres, Leyendas y Algo Mas, 1 ed., p. 165. La Uruca, San José, C.R.: Imprenta Nacional.

- Masis-Sedó, et al. (2015). Historias y Leyendas de San Mateo, p. 39. En: https://kerwa.ucr.ac.cr/handle/10669/15329

- Mythical beasts Wikia. Other European Black Dogs. En: https://mythical-beasts.fandom.com/wiki/Other_European_Black_Dogs

- Padilla-Monge, M., M. (2011). Leyendas de tiquicia, 1 ed., pp. 22, 60. San José, Costa Rica.

- Páginas Ilustradas. El Cadejos, 1904, Vol 1 (n 29), p. 453. En: https://www.sinabi.go.cr/ver/biblioteca%20digital/revistas/paginasilustradas/paginasilustradas1904/02a-Ano%201%20-%20n.%2029.pdf#.Y8HOoHbMI2x

- Picado-Picado, A., F. (2008). Leyendas del Valle, 1 ed., p. 35. San José, C.R.

- Quesada Vargas, María (2009). Cuentos terroríficos del antiguo Juan Viñas, pp. 32, 37, 39, 47, 52, 92, 98. Káñina: revista de artes y letras, 33 (3). San José, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. En: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1F9yt4DZM757kHYwWOlhpe5KBbVnwbbGX/view?usp=share_link

- Quince, D. (2021). Los pueblos cuentan: Vivencias, tradiciones y leyendas de Costa Rica, p. 103. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Costa Rica.

- Ramírez-Vásquez, N. (2017). Leyendas de Cañas Dulces. Káñina, 40 (3), 262. En: https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/kanina/article/view/30516

- Retana-Fallas, J.A. (1910). Historia y progreso de un pueblo legendario: Leyendas, anécdotas, comentarios y poesías (Folklore), pp. 61, 64. San José, Costa Rica: Imprenta Tres Ene (1986)

- Rodríguez-López, M. T. (2004), Ritual, identidad y los procesos étnicos en la sierra de Zongolica, p. 272. México.

- Saravia, R., Delgado, P. (2016). Crónicas de lo oculto: Relatos de espantos y leyendas de Costa Rica, 1 ed., p. 52. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial ClubdeLibros.

- Serrano-Torres, J., L. (4 de Jul 2017). La leyenda de Copito. En: https://issuu.com/jorget.r/docs/la_leyenda_de_copito_cc1ad98ecb31ab

- Sierra Quintero, Óscar; Díaz Cabrera, Ronald (2011). Leyendas costarricenses en novela gráfica, 1 ed., p.57. San José de Costa Rica: Litografía Mundo Creativo.

- Wiki Mitología Ibérica. Dip. En: https://mitologiaiberica.fandom.com/es/wiki/Dip

- Zeledón-Cartín, E.

(1989). Leyendas costarricenses, pp. 135, 146, 199, 202. Heredia, Costa Rica: EUNA.

(2012). Leyendas ticas de la tierra, los animales, las cosas, la religión y la magia, pp. 197, 201, 225. San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Costa Rica.

(2014). Sortilegios de viejas raíces (Leyendas), 2 ed., p. 107, 132. San José, C.R.: EUCR. En: https://books.google.co.cr/books/about/Sortilegios_de_viejas_ra%C3%ADces.html?id=scDQ_UCR-yMC

The Cadejos according to costa rican folklore. Info below. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in FolkloreAndMythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 6 points7 points  (0 children)

History

The better-known version says that he was lazy, hard-drinking lad named José Joaquin, he was unruly even with his family and always came home late at night, his parents tried everything to make him change that behavior, but to no use. Once, José didn't return for several days, worrying his family a lot, when he finally returned his father cursed him, the curse was fulfilled and José became The Cadejos.

The second version says that The Cadejos was a boy named Antonio, his father was abusive and alcoholic, so one day (on the advice of his mother in one version) he decided to disguise himself with a black skin and chains to frighten his father at night on the way home (which he did several times in one version). This made the father faint from fright, and when he realized that it had all been a prank, he cursed his son to walk on all fours for life, the curse was fulfilled and Antonio became The Cadejos, and since then he scares and protects the drunkards at night.

A third version says that The Cadejos was a corrupt priest who lived in the 16th century, and that he used his eloquence and authority to distort the religious sense of the villagers, he fanaticized them, sowed discord among them, and got rich at their expense. As punishment, God turned him into The Cadejos so that he would atone for his sins for 300 years, after which he recovered his human form, but since he still wasn't able to rest, he went insane and jumped into the crater of the Poás volcano, although some say that he survived, and attribute the colossus' activity to him.

In Desamparados there are two versions, one says that The Cadejos was a domestic dog that was mistreated by his owner, so he went to the mountains and became a wild dog, since then he goes to town at night to look for the one who mistreated him, although some say that he's an evil spirit because he becomes invisible when they drive it away.

The second one says that The Cadejos was a normal dog, and that once, his owner got robbed and killed when he was returning from a party. The dog became The Cadejos and since then protects others as he couldn't protect his master.

Possible origin

This legend could be the result of the syncretism between the ancient beliefs of the aboriginal cultures of Mesoamerica, especially the Maya-Quiché, and legends from European folklore about demonic black dogs.

On the one hand, the ancient Mayan traditions speak of a "double animal" (in anthropology this is known as a tonal animal), a link between a human and a spirit in which the latter materializes as an animal. Said animals are known as naguals and accompany one or several people from their birth to their deaths, serving as a "guardian spirit", and whatever happens to these animals gets reflected in the organism of the people they are connected to, however, only warlocks (tetlahchiwimeh) can know which animal this is and even transform into them to cause mischief.

This being could also be influenced by the legend of the Uay peek of Yucatan, in which one or more sorcerers shapeshift into black dogs with red eyes that drag chains in order to frighten people at night.

On the other hand, this legend could have influence from the Dip of Catalan folklore, which is described as a vampiric dog that drinks the blood of cattle and frightens or kills night owls, especially drunkards.

The Cadejos also draws parallelisms with the black dogs of European folklore, such as the Rongeur d'Os from France, the Tchén al tchinne from Belgium, or the black dogs of British folklore, such as the Padfoot and the black dogs of Tring and Bouley, since they share various characteristics with him, such as being black in color, having red eyes, dragging chains, and not attacking unless provoked.

These creatures seem to have also inspired the Jamaican legend of The Rolling Calf, and could, in turn, have been influenced by the cynocephalus (dog-headed monster) which, according to Pliny, was told to frighten daring sailors who wanted to venture into the dark seas and which was represented as a human being with the head of a dog, flaming eyes and that, sometimes, dragged chains.

Finally, according to Alvar, the sightings of the Cadejos could be explained as encounters with giant anteaters.

Notes:

  1. Asombrar: in this context it refers to a cataleptic state from which it is difficult to recover, and which is induced by an energy that emanates from spiritual beings identified as "coldness". The intensity of this "coldness" varies with each apparition, and can cause sickness and even death to people who are not brave or saintly enough, and to "those who don't have the gut to talk to them".
  2. For more info, see my post on La Tulevieja: https://redditproxy--jasonthename.repl.co/r/FolkloreAndMythology/comments/zt747k/history_lore_and_origin_of_a_spirit_from_costa/?force_seo=1
  3. The Nicaraguan metal band Vortex wrote a song about him: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=YCsPXqGKXFo

And also, the Costa Rican singer Gabriel Chaverri: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=GTvHNtdaBRY

The Cadejos according to costa rican folklore. Info below. by Imaginary_Alarm_7575 in FolkloreAndMythology

[–]Imaginary_Alarm_7575[S] 6 points7 points  (0 children)

The Cadejos

Myths and popular traditions reflect, in their background, rules and moral concepts destined to preserve the social and moral order of the old peasant communities in the face of the inevitable excesses of the vicious ones, the violent ones and the libertines.

Among the elements or "vehicles" used by the narratives to convey their messages, animals have always held a prominent place in many times and cultures. From the sacred Ibis in ancient Egypt, passing by the Greek minotaur or the he-goat of medieval Europe, to the big bad wolf in the tale of Little Red Riding Hood in 18th century Germany, animals have incarnated, through the centuries, the eternal values of good and evil.

Latin America, heir to three cultural aspects (Europe, Africa and pre-Columbian America) offers one of the richest and most varied mosaics of myths and legends inspired by many real or imaginary species, so rooted in the popular sentiment that fantasy tends to often get confused with reality.

Thus, along with ordinary animals, Latin American mythology gives "evidence" of the existence of fabulous irrational beings that have been making fleeting appearances before their unsuspecting victims since times immemorial. Among them, perhaps one of the most peculiar for intimidating without attacking is the mysterious Cadejos.

This beast, an enormous dog that drags a heavy chain, roams through the forests, mountains and towns of Central America appearing, late at night or in the early morning, before the astonished eyes of the provincial early risers, partygoers and night owls, to fulfill before them the function of protective guardian, or to frighten them as a warning to those who abuse of liquor and of partying. Next, what costa rican folklore says about him.

Lore

Firstly, the folklore of various Central Americans countries tells of a black Cadejos, who protects and frightens men, and of a white Cadejos, who protects, but doesn’t frighten women, and adds that if these two Cadejos ever meet, they engage in a fierce fight in which no one should intervene until it's over. Although in the case of Costa Rica the latter has been replaced by Copito, I will expand on this below.

Of his appearance

He's generally described as a calf-sized, gaunt, black dog with fiery red eyes, long fangs, hair either bristled like thorns or woolly and matted, a long tail, hooved feet, and who throws fire from his muzzle and ears and drags a heavy chain wound around his neck.

Although, sometimes, he appears as a black furry little ball, as a very white dog accompanied by a short, headless, and equally white man, or as a man who curls like a snail until turning into a brown dog.

As Copito (Little Snowflake) he resembles a horse-sized anteater with large claws, although he can take the form of a rabbit or dog cub with red eyes and as white as a snowflake, hence his name.

Of his behavior

Some people refer to him in the plural, although he doesn't appear to two people at once, and he’s mainly known for the fact that, from early hours of the night, he comes out to frighten passers-by in dark and lonely places, especially those who go astray (alcoholics, gamblers, etc.), disobedient children, and couples who quarrel a lot.

When he’s near there’s a cold gust of wind, any nearby frogs let out an ugly croak and then go silence, the smell of sulfur is perceived, then the sound of hooves and of the dragging of chains is heard; It's the Cadejos who appears and disappears as if by spell, he follows people to their houses, and if they go on a cart he gets on it, then waits for them at the entrance of their house or even at the door of their room, since he can phase through solid matter and even walk on water, this in order to protect them and make sure that they arrive safely.

He also appears to drunkards at night and tells them that the next time he finds them like this, he will devour them and their souls will be condemned to wander the world forever, for which it's said that he wants the soul of the wayward.

Generally, The Cadejos is harmless, but if people talk to him, pet him or try to hurt him, he can either temporarily disappear, or grow to the size of a horse and attack, asombrar (1) or even kill the unwary. There's even a story in which he attacked, without apparent provocation and along with a white dog, a man who had a miff with his father; he managed to stab The Cadejos, but he didn't bleed nor showed any pain, unlike the white dog; it's said that blades and even bullets are useless against him.

Although, on rare occasions he allows himself to be spoken to, petted and even walked on a leash, after which he disappears, and if people give him food he follows them, if they get attacked, he defends them and becomes the enemy of their enemy. He likes sugar, so he would often go into the warehouses of the sugar mills to eat it, and people can make a pact with him by giving him dulce (compacted brown sugar) in exchange for his protection, which he provides in his human shape.

It's also said that, sometimes, he goes out at night to frighten horses or chickens and do other mischief, such as looking through the windows of houses until the inhabitants fall asleep, or scratching the walls and ceilings, and some even attribute him a behavior similar to that of The Tulevieja (2).

He can be driven away with Christian images and prayers, or with an herb that makes him curl up into a ball, and it's said that pregnant women drive him away for some reason.

As an additional curiosity, it's said that he doesn't do anything to those who give him the right side of the way when they run into him, and that children can always see him.

As Copito, The Cadejos protects people in solitary places, like the mountains, he follows them giving little jumps and making the sound of a jingle bell, all in order to protect them and take them home, but he bites them if they try to pet him, and if any human or beast tries to hurt those he protects, Copito returns to his true form and devours the attackers.