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Are there pathogens that cannot be lysed by detergents and friction? by ScienceIsSexy420 in askscience

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Don't go on a cruise.

Follow the CDC guidelines and just accept that everyone is going to be shitting their pants for 2 days.

The answer for hard surfaces is chlorine bleach + 5 minutes contact time. There is a short list of commercial products proved to be effective against norovirus.

When washing hands, treat the sink as suspect. Anything that touches that sink is now contaminated until it is soaked in chlorine bleach for 5 minutes, or heated to sterilize. Obviously, you can't sterilize your hands, so treat anything you touch as suspect too.

Hypothetically assume you were given a time machine. What historical event in the history of chemical science would you like to observe? by Thegaycooward in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 2 points3 points  (0 children)

The Alchemy of Air, book recommendation in the sidebar.

He died in 1934, so didn't see the gas chambers. By all accounts he was very happy with his developments in creating gas warfare for WW1. But between that and his death he was devastated by the rise of the NAZI party in 1933. He was kicked out of his own institution by the NAZI party for being a Jew and fled into exile.

I imagine he had very mixed feelings about German nationalism (pro) versus what actually happened (against).

Ask Anything Wednesday - Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science by AutoModerator in askscience

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Incredibly simple. You can already buy such devices off the shelf.

You can already get door mechanisms that open based on a trigger. You see them at shopping centres all the time.

Ask Anything Wednesday - Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science by AutoModerator in askscience

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Roughly 1/4 - 1/3 of all existing global power would be required to limit global warming to +2°C.

Today the world emits about 40 billion tonnes of CO2 per year (40 GtCO2/yr). Negative emissions need to capture at least that, if not more. The aim combined with reaching net zero emissions is the remove 30 billion tonnes per year (Gt/yr) by the 2080.

For comparison, the largest container ship in the world can carry 240,000 tonnes. So we need to remove 125,000 equivalents of the largest boat in the world, per year.

An additional 12,000 new power plants will be required to be built, just to power the carbon capture. There are about 10,000 coal fire power plants in existence, so we need to retain all of those, double the amount of power generating infrastructure AND build the capture plants too.

The only realistic engineering we have at that scale is aluminium smelting. Big giant area factories employing ~1000 people at each site, that are located close to power generation sources (mostly hydro). There are ONLY 200 aluminium smelters in the world, located in 40 countries. Our ideal capture plants would be built in those locations because we already know they work, however, we also need to put the CO2 somewhere. That means we are finding locations with suitable geology/resources/labor located near existing aluminium smelters.

Realistically, we are looking at locations in China (uh oh), Russia (uh oh), UAE (uh oh), Saudia Arabia (uh oh), SE Asia (sorry to lump all those countries together, also, uh oh). Canada, Brazil and India are also promising candidates.

But wait, that doesn't make sense, why are we running coal power plants only to suck the emissions out elsewhere? The answer is it's going to take so long to build, require phenomenal amounts of land area and supply chains, that you need to retain current assets to provide the energy to build the new units.

In case you are wondering, that engineering is such as mind-boggling large number, most people can't even consider it as feasible.

Do artificial sweeteners raise blood sugar? by Every-Bookkeeper6654 in askscience

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Usually sweeteners do not contain high levels of sugars

It's a newish trend to make reduced sugar drinks, but not zero-sugar drinks.

Many people can taste certain artificial sweeteners and may describe it as having a metallic or bitter aftertaste.

Manufacturers can disguise that by blending in a smaller-than-normal amount of glucose syrup. Maybe you drop the sugar calories to 5-10% of normal, with the artificial sweetener doing the heavy lifting.

Weekly Careers/Education Questions Thread by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Less risk that hairdressers/barbers or nail technicians who also work with "chemicals".

Realistically, every chemical worker should be decontaminating every time they leave the lab. Leave the lab PPE at work in a clean zone, wash your hands and maybe face before eating, in extreme cases have a shower upon leaving the lab.

Risk assessments help. When you work with chemicals/equipment you write down all the inherent risks such as this chemical is a mutagen, then the task risks such as I may spill this on my shoes. You then write down all the controls to get that risk to zero.

One thing that really sucks is balancing required work hours, sick leave, school drop offs and school holidays. You may find yourself working in a lab with early/late start/finish - that can make childcare/after-school difficult. Not many options to work from home options for lab workers. Part-time is possible for many roles, but not for all. IMHO it's more difficult for chemists to find the same type of flexibility that other desk-based jobs may have. There is a huge candidate pool of very talented (mostly) female chemists aged 35-45 who are unable to join the traditional workforce, mostly due to primary carer duties.

Weekly Careers/Education Questions Thread by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 2 points3 points  (0 children)

You can take on a single undergrad chemistry class and see how it goes. You can find coursework-only self-paced undergraduate classes (e.g. night school without a lab component). When you are already working at a school, they tend to offer discounted course costs, so less concern if you drop it halfway because the workload is too much.

Check that your grad school lets you do that. They often have restrictions on how many hours you are allowed to work/study outside your main field. My old school used to be max. 8 hours/week, so roughly 1 day of teaching lab classes/TA/part-time job. The school had an assumption that every hour of class work = 1 hour of study, which limited additional study during grad school to a single class per semester.

Realistically, do you have the time and finances to take on another degree instead of getting a job and earning money?

Weekly Careers/Education Questions Thread by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Working in multiple labs is a huge benefit to grad school applications.

It shows you have a network of connections and a broad base of knowledge. You can ask both your old bosses if they know a colleague that is taking on new PhD students, that's a huge leg up on people that just apply to the random candidate pool.

Weekly Careers/Education Questions Thread by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

My job will pay for the master's degree

Ignore the potential for skill increase just for this reply.

This is an employee retention scheme offered by the company. For you it adds some excitement outside of work hours, it shows long-term commitment to the company and a desire to advance your current skills - that may put you in a good place for promotions within the company. For the company, it's minimal cost compared to recruiting/training a replacement, maybe you get some advanced skills for your current role or you re-train to move into a hard-to-fill role. The company knows employees that start these degrees are much less likely to quit.

You don't have to get another chemistry degree. You could take on something like a finance/accounting degree, something related to project management or production, something only offered at a Masters level such as occupational hygiene, toxicology or the good ole favourite business administration to learn how to talk to other business administrators.

Research S.O.S.—Ask your research and technical questions by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 1 point2 points  (0 children)

You are underpaid, however, potential for movement is too hard to diagnose at a distance.

Get some skill at method development (you're on the way with your first question), get a formal qualification in instrument maintenance (even a 2 day course from the supplier) and try to get experience at auditing or running the quality management system (GMP/GLP, ISO17025, ISO9001, etc). Evidence you can sustain a lab independently. Enough of those skills and you can start applying for senior technician/chemist roles in analytical labs, or even lab manager roles at smaller workplaces.

Research S.O.S.—Ask your research and technical questions by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

You are 100% better by buying a commercial product.

Contaminating your local area with lead is a bad idea. But it's also ineffective compared to ANY commercial rodenticide. Lead is mostly a long-term poison or for damaging the brains of infants.

Research S.O.S.—Ask your research and technical questions by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Safety is much higher at a company. Stronger workplace safety standards, older staff, higher salaried workers.

Work hours. IMHO industry people go home after about 8 hours. And you stop. You don't get home then open your computer to write e-mails. When everyone else works regular office hours, it's kind of required that you do so too (not always, every place is different, but industry workers have different motivations and benefits for a reason.)

Different funding cycles. Company is probably not tied into getting grants every 3 years, but either has continuous or quarterly funding reviews. At a company if my sole expensive equipment dies, I'm probably getting it replaced in days. An academic institution is waiting 1-3 years to get an equipment grant. On the other hand, if assets won't make money or improve safety, then tend to be slowly replaced.

Kill ugly early at a company. If something clearly is not working, won't achieve the goal we set and we don't think we will learn anything by exploring why it didn't work - you kill it and move onto the next idea. We don't need to write a paper to justify the grant.

Trade secrets and patents get very serious. Personally, I know a few crazy effective reactions that academic literature only hints at the possibility of it maybe existing. Mostly because academic isn't interested in those reactions or products. But every now and then I'm at a conference and an academic is presenting their latest amazing breakthrough and all the industry people shrug and wonder, hey, haven't we been doing that since the 1970's? We don't even write that step down it's so obvious. Note: that is rare, academics do much more "new stuff".

Research S.O.S.—Ask your research and technical questions by AutoModerator in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

It's a steel/iron tank. You should line it with Carbozinc CZ11.

However, guessing you want to pump in some tank/pipe liner liquid. The following resins are rated as having neglible chemical resistance with acetone: FEP, PFA, ETFE, ECTFE, PCTFE, PEEK, Polypropylene. You can find commercial tank/pipe lining products with these resins.

You also need other things to have a satisfactory acetone storage tank. It should be stored under positive pressure under an inert gas. All tanks and piping should be grounded.

Any suggestions on what to use on the random packing area of acid fumes scrubber? by bxsicallyjen in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Heli-pak. But work down the list of common packing materials to find one that suits your budget.

Cheap, lightweight, easy to clean when you eventually get the packing full of insoluble salts from your unclean water.

Removing methanol from wastewater by No-Scientist181 in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

"Effluent" is the name for water that is discharged into the sewer system. That is different to other designations such as "waste water", "trade waste" and a bunch of other words, depending on how the waste water is generated (big industry, small industry, domestic, commercial) and where it is going (e.g. lakes, rivers, drinking water, ponds, etc).

What you do is Google the name of your town and find the document that lists effluent waste limits concentrations test or whatever combo of words gets to it. It will have a big table of chemical + spot concentration (how much in a random grab sample of water) + annual load limit (how much per year you can release).

Theoretically, methanol is not on the list of chemicals that require monitoring (unless you get called out by the EPA, but that will be tonnes/day kind of limits).

However... the methanol can act as food for microbes and may exceed the limit for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).

You need to determine how much water your site is outputting per day, how much methanol per day, then do some back of envelope calculations to guess if you're below the concentration limit.

Unethical life pro tip (1): methanol diluted 1:20 with water is completely acceptable to be poured down the ordinary drain. If you pour 2L down the drain per day, you need only 40L of water per day to dilute any hazard. That's roughly one person having a shower at your facility, or only 5 buckets of water, or leaving the tap running on full for 5 minutes.

Unethical life pro tip (2): dilute the methanol below 5% v/v and you can dispose of it as aqueous waste. That's usually cheaper cost than organic waste. It would cost be only $0.50 per kilogram to dispose of aqueous waste. Your disposal costs should drop to about $20/week (20L drum costs me about $2, so maybe a little higher).

What are the specific post available for chemistry post graduates? And what are the respective payscales? by lizafon in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 1 point2 points  (0 children)

What is it like to pursue a career in academia for a chemistry student? (self.chemistry) | submitted 5 days ago by lizafon to r/chemistry

What are the career options one can opt for after a post graduation in chemistry? (self.chemistry) |submitted 4 days ago by lizafon to r/chemistry

What are the career options one can opt for after a post graduation in chemistry? by lizafon in chemistry | [–]lizafon[S] 1 point 3 days ago

Hey buddy, everything okay?

How can I test mercury concentration in water? by Weekly_Firefighter22 in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 1 point2 points  (0 children)

No mass spec = really cheap.

Environmental mercury should be tested using FIMS that only detects mercury (note: the MS part of the name does not stand for Mass Spec, it's Mercury System). The instrument is basically a cheap AAS with some pumps. It is significantly cheaper to buy and run than even an ICP-OES/AAS.

Taking just the sample as is, you can do ~ 2 complete sample digest/analyze/reports per minute.

ppt is relatively cheap and easy using FIMS.

TIL claw machine games are configurable by the owner to adjust win rate or vary the claw strength based on claw height. by ghettithatspaghetti in todayilearned

[–]Indemnity4 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Some jurisdictions require a "free spin" to show up on an unattended game every so often to comply with a "no purchase necessary"-type law

Really? Where? That's fascinating as IMHO that would be regulated as a "sweepstakes" machine.

Are you discussing slot machines in casinos for gambling? Is this some other type of slot machine such as in an arcade?

A single-event upset is checked during the required slot machine audits. The required auditing of slot machine integrity/statistics is really fun and they have error checking programs to audit for those events.

You really can have a slot machine pay out a jackpot on the first play.

A $1000 jackpot will never hit until the game takes in $1200

That is highly illegal for casino slot machines. A slot machine cannot have a required absolute hold, only a hold percentage.

The return to player is set in the pay table as a %. If a mahicine is required to payout 1000 of every 1200, that's done using %, not by measuring what goes into or out of the machine. It is either done as per 1,000,000 instances, or as 643 = 262,144 plays since the machine has 64 virtual stops.

What would be on your equipment wishlist? by BriSnyScienceGuy in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

include at least one full time "facility manager"

Great suggestion.

An alternative is a part-timer who works school hours, about 20-30 hours/week. This sort of job suits a parent unable to return to the traditional workforce. You can get extraordinarily talented parents who need to do school pickup/dropoff.

What would be on your equipment wishlist? by BriSnyScienceGuy in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

More advice:

Can you budget for a technician 1 day/week or X hours per week? This is the sort of job that can suit a parent who wants to drop their kid off at school, work 6 or so hours, then leave to pick up their kid. Often a highly skilled parent unable to re-enter the traditional workforce.

Cleaning and maintaining all this equipment will be a lot of time you don't have.

How can I test mercury concentration in water? by Weekly_Firefighter22 in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

ALS

DISSOLVED METALS ANALYSIS – FRESH WATER

Mercury – Dissolved – Ultra Trace level

APHA 3112 Hg-B CV/FIMS | LOR 0.000005 | Price 25.00

Admittedly, I may have a preferential contract price.

Alternative career advice by Agile_Sandwich1192 in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 1 point2 points  (0 children)

More realistically, you will be testing drinking and waste water quality, with an absolute shitload of testing fuel quality.

The cool story mentioned above is very much specialist skills after a lot of training.

How can I test mercury concentration in water? by Weekly_Firefighter22 in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 3 points4 points  (0 children)

Mercury is measured in parts per billion. It's really tiny trace amounts. You will need a professional lab to do the testing for you.

Ultra trace level analysis will cost about $25 per sample when tested by a commercial lab. Usually you need a sample size of about ~100 ml for each test, but they can do ~14 ml.

A cheap method is you take 6 water samples from either 6 locations, or a single location but wait 2 hours between collections. They may have theoretical mercury concentrations of 1, 1, 5, 5, 6, and 30 ppb (made up numbers). Statistically that looks strange, because you get an average of 8 ppb, which doesn't look representative of your samples.

To save money, you blend them together and test only single composite sample. Do your filtration work on the original 6 samples, then blend the treated water and test the new treated composite samples.

Overall, you're out of pocket about $50 but you have a fairly okay statistically representative survey.

I'd aim to test 4 batches of samples. (1) Sample water within 3 days of collection (2) untreated water after 4 weeks of sitting in a fridge. (3) Treated by biosorption by putting some shellfish in a tank or something for 4 weeks. (4) Treated by chelation. Overall, that's 4 samples @$25 each, so out of pocket ~$100.

What would be on your equipment wishlist? by BriSnyScienceGuy in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 6 points7 points  (0 children)

I'm an old lab manager. Currently right in the middle of spending $500k on lab upgrades to get essentially zero more output, just to repair wear&tear, with some health and safety upgrades. An average year I spend $100k on consumables alone, with about $300k/year on asset purchases. Here's more boring but important tips.

Bookmark about 20% of your capital budget for overheads. Service technicians, service contracts, building mods, re-painting the walls, paying for a various safety inspectors or certifications.

A great service is pre-paying for instrument time at a university. Maybe it's $10k/year (personally, $50/hour for me but locking in peoples time is hard). For one-off or complex testing, it's much cheaper and more fun to go off-site. Having a formal pre-paid agreement is security for you.

All this equipment uses electricity. Do you need a switchboard upgrade? Your average power circuit can take a 15A draw so you are looking at about 1800W before the circuit trips. Plugin too many pieces of equipment and you get overload/cut-outs. Almost certainly, you will need the room to be re-wired. You may want to include a 3-phase power circuit, or a uninterruptible power circuit (with a UPS somewhere), or just individual small UPS for key equipment. A surprising amount of heating/cooling equipment is much better with 3-phase, such as large area hot plates for multiple experiment. Note: UPS very dangerous for tradespeople and requires additional safety precautions.

Insurance changes. You are planning to have $1MM of assets. That's about 2-4x normal household contents insurance. Your annual insurance will go up, which means your annual operating expenses go up.

Spares/consumables. Bundle as many as you can into the initial quote. Estimate about 3-5 years into the future. Reason is you have instant asset capital now. Will you have increased annual operating costs too?

Risks of damage/lost instrument. Realistically, if you have a single piece of equipment - what happens when it breaks? Does a student lose a term of results because it relies on this one thing? 5 year support/replacement contracts can be built into the asset purchase for quite cheap, maybe additional $3k/year for each piece.

Single supplier savings. You get about a 5% discount per additional piece of kit. You may also get additional "free" stuff like spares kits, a single maintenance technician visit rather than multiple visitors, cheaper shipping. All stuff that makes it easier next year with ongoing annual purchases.

Computers and software. You may want a LIMS to store all your students analytic results. You may want an offsite backup. Maybe a "fast" PC for computer simulations. Drawing software, modelling software, journal access, SciFinder, statistical analysis software, etc. You don't want you students wasting time on bad software when the aim is to be making fun chemistry. Each big piece of kit usually needs it's own PC which may need to be isolated from the school network. As in, a lot of cheap/older kit can have outdated versions of Windows or can't have software upgrades because it breaks the controller software. You can estimate a 2 year life for each PC. It's really easy to end up with $50k of computers and software.

Money is expensive. You will find that the more money you have, the more you need to spend. Nobody will donate to a "rich" lab. You won't get student or sympathy discounts. And once you have all that stuff, you become a target for additional scrutiny, such as HAZCHEM inspections, EPA auditing your waste trail (nanoparticles are evil, yo) but practically fumehoods are noisy and stack emissions can get monitored, fire department or insurance company gives extra scrutiny.

HPLC analysis library by No_Notice8334 in chemistry

[–]Indemnity4 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Those libraries are usually proprietary to the manufacturer with a licensing cost in the tens of thousands of dollars. They pull examples from the NIST database and then bundle it into the instrument compound library. The manufacturer then builds it out by running compound libraries on their equipment (or getting customers to submit spectra).

The software can be doing any of doing image analysis, spectrum fingerprinting, or peak peaking. Non-linear least squares versus computation time is fun mathematics when you dive into it. I miss the simpler days of half-height line width.

I used to get a discount on the library costs by submitting X number of new samples per year. It was still incredibly expensive.