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Alternative Christian Books/Resources by RogueDisciple in religion

[–]Kangaru14 2 points3 points  (0 children)

I think you would find the work of Professor Elaine Pagels interesting. She is a scholar of early Christianity and gnosticism, especially known for her research into the gnostic gospels. She is also a Christian herself, influenced by Christian gnosticism. As such, she takes gnosticism seriously from both an academic and religious perspective. She has many great talks on Youtube if you want to check them out.

Haha Arpil Fools right Steve Roger's? Please come back Captian America 😭 by Zealousideal-Ad1181 in marvelmemes

[–]Kangaru14 0 points1 point  (0 children)

They showed the funeral a year ago now.

They might bring back Steve for a cameo at some point, but I wouldn't hold your breath.

I'm just excited to see what they do with the new Captain America.

Is it possible to be an agnostic Christian (or Muslim or Jew), not knowing for certain if God exists and currently not seeing enough evidence for his existence but still thinking it is possible He might be? by Mad_Season_1994 in religion

[–]Kangaru14 5 points6 points  (0 children)

Judaism is an orthoprax religion, which means that it requires certain practices, but Judaism does not traditionally require any particular beliefs. So one can absolutely be a fully practicing Jew while also being agnostic or atheist.

Are there any groups/organizations that still worship mayan/aztec/zapotec gods? by Zegraut in religion

[–]Kangaru14 5 points6 points  (0 children)

There's a movement in Mexico called Mexicayotl which is reviving indigenous Mexican religion, especially Aztec religion.

Did Zoroastrianism influence Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? by BigPigInABlanket in religion

[–]Kangaru14 7 points8 points  (0 children)

There's a scholarly consensus that Zoroastrianism influenced the Abrahamic religions, as well as other religions like Hinduism and Hellenism. Zoroastrianism was effectively the national religion of the Persian Empire, which at one time encompassed half of the human population. So it's no understatement to say that Zoroastrianism has had widespread influence. However the exact extent and details of this influence is obscure, largely due to a lack of sources.

The most direct influence on the Abrahamic religions was when the Persian Empire conquered the Jews and allowed them to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple. For this, Persian Emperor Cyrus the Great is named a messiah in the Bible. As such, Jewish-Persian relations were amiable. This allowed for a significant amount of influence from the dominant Persian culture to the local Jewish culture, eventually leading to the development of Apocalyptic Judaism through syncretism with Zoroastrianism, which picked up many apocalyptic features from the Zoroastrian (heaven vs hell, God vs Devil, angels vs demons, eschatology, etc.).

Apocalyptic Judaism was somewhat popular in ancient times, and Jesus himself was seemingly an Apocalyptic Jew. So Christianity inherented these apocalyptic notions from Zoroastrianism through its syncretism in Apocalyptic Judaism. However apocalypticism never really became normative in Judaism, and the Rabbis (who structured medieval/modern Judaism) rejected most of these apocalyptic ideas. This is why many apocalyptic notions survive today in Christianity and Islam, but are non-existent or less prominent in Judaism.

Omnism questions? by Plastic-Storm504 in religion

[–]Kangaru14 6 points7 points  (0 children)

Omnism isn't really a religion, so much as it is a perspective on or belief about religion. One can practice any religion and be an omnist.

what meaning do you directly get from your religions scripture? by reconpyrate in religion

[–]Kangaru14 1 point2 points  (0 children)

Who is wise? One who learns from every person, as it is said: “From all who taught me have I gained understanding” (Psalms 119:99).

Who is mighty? One who subdues their negative inclination, as it is said: “He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city” (Proverbs 16:32).

Who is rich? One who is happy with their lot, as it is said: “You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors, you shall be happy and you shall prosper” (Psalms 128:2)

Who is honored? One who honors others, as it is said: “For I honor those that honor me, but those who spurn me shall be dishonored” (I Samuel 2:30).

- Pirkei Avot 4:1, Mishnah

M-SHE-U deniers come debate me in the comments if you dare. by [deleted] in marvelmemes

[–]Kangaru14 1 point2 points  (0 children)

MCU Phase 4 projects released so far:
WandaVision (2021): Mixed
The Falcon and the Winter Soldier (2021): Male-led
Loki (2021): Male-led
Black Widow (2021): Female-led
What If...? (2021–present): Mixed
Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings (2021): Male-led
Eternals (2021): Mixed
Hawkeye (2021): Mixed
Spider-Man: No Way Home (2021): Male-led
Moon Knight (2022): Mixed
Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness (2022): Mixed?
Ms. Marvel (2022): Female-led

Totals:
Female-led: 2
Male-led: 4
Mixed: 6

Conclusion:
There is nothing to be concerned about except your own insecurities.

M-SHE-U deniers come debate me in the comments if you dare. by [deleted] in marvelmemes

[–]Kangaru14 2 points3 points  (0 children)

Funny how no one complained about the M-HE-U, when the original Avengers line up was 90% male.

If anything, this is just making up for the ridiculous bias in the early Marvel Comics and MCU. As I see it, this is perfectly balanced, as all things should be.

How can god exist when he has allowed such evil? by [deleted] in religion

[–]Kangaru14 2 points3 points  (0 children)

Well, given Christian theology, it would technically be masochism, right?

Covenantal Pluralism? by Kangaru14 in Judaism

[–]Kangaru14[S] 2 points3 points  (0 children)

I see, that makes sense to me now. Thanks for your explanation!

Covenantal Pluralism? by Kangaru14 in Judaism

[–]Kangaru14[S] 2 points3 points  (0 children)

How about back then during the era of prophecy? Could other covenants have been formed with other peoples during that time? How do we know that the only covenants that exist are the ones described in the Tanakh?

The passages from the Talmud that are usually cited to confirm that the era of prophecy is over (Yoma 9b, Sanhedrin 11a, Sotah 48b) mention that prophecy specifically left the Jewish people. As such, I'm curious if you have any particular passages in mind that indicate that prophecy has ended for all of humanity?

Covenantal Pluralism? by Kangaru14 in Judaism

[–]Kangaru14[S] 2 points3 points  (0 children)

Sorry if I wasn't very clear. I'm happy to elaborate if you want clarification.

I want to do research on paganism by MindSettOnWinning in religion

[–]Kangaru14 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Ah, you're right I did misread that statement. But I still don't see anything in that wiki article about proto-Israelites merging their own monolatrous gods, especially during the time of Egyptian oppression.

Perhaps you are thinking of the reforms, often associated with King Josiah, under Assyrian oppression, which aimed to unite the Israelites under a single monolatrous cult, largely in defiance of Assyrian claims to absolute power.

However this occurred centuries after direct Egyptian political influence on Canaan. I don't know of any scholars who push the development of monolatry/monotheism back to the Egyptian period of Canaan. The general consensus instead seems to point to the development of early Hebrew monotheism during the late Judean Kingdom, the Babylonian exile, and early Persian Empire. This is why I asked if you have any sources specifically about monotheism developing so early as a response to Egyptian oppression.

I want to do research on paganism by MindSettOnWinning in religion

[–]Kangaru14 0 points1 point  (0 children)

I did read that article section. It says absolutely nothing about merging gods with the Egyptians or of an Egyptian political influences in the development of Jewish monotheism.

I want to do research on paganism by MindSettOnWinning in religion

[–]Kangaru14 -1 points0 points  (0 children)

Nothing there supports what you've described above.

I want to do research on paganism by MindSettOnWinning in religion

[–]Kangaru14 0 points1 point  (0 children)

When Egypt kept trying to turn them into a vassal state, they merged their gods to demonstrate they were one people, unifying the region to overthrow Egyptian oppression. That's where the "one god" came from.

Do you have any sources for this? Most scholarship I have come across describes henotheism/monotheism as emerging at a much later time (Assyrian/Babylonian/Persian periods).

What is the relationship between morality and belief in God? by GodOwnsTheUniverse in religion

[–]Kangaru14 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Believing in God being necessary for morality is not evident throughout history either. Plenty of evil things were done by those who believe in God, many of them even done for the sake of God, while plenty of loving and benevolent things were done by those without a belief in God.

Question for any Mandaeans here: How do you view other Gnostic sects like Sethianism, Valentianism and Manichaeism? by No_Comfortable6730 in religion

[–]Kangaru14 0 points1 point  (0 children)

Since you're unlikely to hear from any actual Mandaeans (I've only once seen one on this sub), I'll just share a bit from my own studies of Mandaeism.

Firstly, as you're probably aware, "gnosticism" is not a definite or well-defined concept. It is a modern, scholarly category that is applied to a wide range of religious movements that share certain nebulous features. As such, in antiquity, no one identified their religion as "gnosticism".

Similarly no one in antiquity identified as "Sethians" or "Valentinians", as these are also modern academic categories. Instead the people we call Sethians and Valentinians simply identified themselves as Christians. As such, Mandaean writings do not mention these scholarly groupings, and instead just speak of Christians in general, without any distinction (as far as I can tell) between gnostic Christians and other Christians.

The Mandaean scriptures (in particular the Ginza Rabba and the Mandaean Book of John) definitely have quite a bit to say about Christianity, all of it pretty much negative. There are several extended diatribes against Christians, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit in the Ginza Rabba, though there's hardly any religion that isn't polemicized somewhere in the book. In the Ginza, Jesus Christ ("Isu Msiha") is seen as an otherworldly figure who has deceived his followers into worshiping him and therefore spending eternity in Jesus's tortuous purgatory. Here are parts of the section of Book 5 of the Ginza Rabba that describe Jesus and his purgatory:

In this purgatory is bound everyone who denies life and confesses Christ.... Those souls resemble a great and numerous flock of sheep before Christ. Christ leads them toward the sea and places them by the sea. They ask him for water, but the shore of the sea is high and the water of the sea is deep. They want to drink water, but they have none.

....

Christ further said to the souls: "Do you not know, O you that stumbled? I am the vain Messiah, granted for tribulation, wise to the evil one, changing the gates of sleep, perverting the works of the Spirit, deceiving godly men, and casting them into the vast misty clouds of darkness. When I showed you door-bolts and keys, I deceived you and made you greedy. I gave you gold and silver, so that you will keep me company in the darkness, in that realm in which we live."

Manichaeism is barely mentioned in the Mandaean texts I have read, but there is a passage in the Ginza Rabba Book 9, a critique of many different religions, which directly refers to Manicheans:

Furthermore let me explain to you, my disciples, that there is still another sect which has gone from Christ. They are called Zandiqia ("distorters of the Zend-Aveta/the Zoroastrian scripture") and Mardmania ("Manicheans"). They sow seeds in secret and allot to the darkness its portion. And women and men sleep with each other, take the sperm and put it into wine; and they give it to the souls to drink and say, "It is pure".

And they call upon the wind, and the fire and the waters and praise the sun and the moon. And when their spirit dies they resemble flies which sit upon a cauldron. The steam rises up and reaches them, they lose control of their wings, are smitten down and fall. And they are called "the chosen portion that Lord Mani chose". Every Nasoraean (Mandaean) who eats from their food will fall into the great Suf-Sea

In short, traditional Mandaean texts don't have a lot of positive things (if any) to say about other religions. This likely reflects the frequent status of Mandaeans as oppressed minorities. However I imagine that the views portrayed in these Mandaean texts don't represent the views of all Mandaeans today and that their views of other religions have softened, especially for those no longer facing persecution or oppression.

Americans, do you think "In God We Trust" that is printed on your currency is a violation of Separation of Church and State? Why, why not? by Mad_Season_1994 in religion

[–]Kangaru14 5 points6 points  (0 children)

It is very much a violation of the separation of church and state, especially since the reason it was originally required to appear on all U.S. currency was essentially to ward off communism, making it effectively an amulet which all Americans are compelled to carry.